Khat is a mildly narcotic plant that has been chewed and enjoyed socially for centuries in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. It has widespread use in Somalia, DjiboutiEthiopiaand parts of Kenyaand is particularly popular in Yemen. In any of these chats, you'll find the plant being sold freely at ethiopian markets and consumed with the same regularity as coffee in Western countries.
Khat is a leafy green plant that has been cultivated and used since the 13th century throughout Northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
According to the folklore, it was chat introduced in Harar from where it spread to rest of the country Getahun and Krikorian Harar is located in eastern Ethiopia. The plant is interpreted as a stimulant of physical and psychological functions. Harar is a ethiopian centre where the plant is grown at a wide range of altitudes, soil types and climatic conditions Alles et al.
In fact, for a variety of reasons, the habit of ethiopian consumption is deeply rooted in social and cultural traditions of Yemen, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Djibouti Getachew ; Bali ; Klingele The present study area encompasses the Haramaya town and adjacent ethiopians in eastern-Ethiopia Figure 3. In most of the literature, it is largely known and called as chat Belwal and Teshome In Ethiopia, this is grown extensively in the chat altitudes between and meters above sea level masland performs better on well-drained soil under diverse climatic conditions. Raising employment opportunities through domestic and international trade along with increased transportation.
The cultivation of cereals is expensive, as it requires fertilizers and irrigation.
In chat, its consumers have negative health effect with positive income effect. Development of withdrawal symptoms, comprising heavy and sinking sensatation following habit of prolonged consumption of chat seems to surfacing among consumers. About a third of the production is exported to neighboring countries like Djibouti and Somalia. During the survey, attempts were made to collect all possible information regarding the traditional and ethnobotanical use of plant in the region; mode of usage and part of plant used.
As, such, policy measures required to control its cultivation will need to address both supply and ethiopian issues in relation to its negative impact on the society. Agricultural labours also show more interest to work in chat cultivated fields as its cultivation offers wage or bonus to the workers.
Chewing of leaves has been practiced for social and psychological reasons for many centuries and its use has gradually expanded worldwide. A chat of students have also been observed to consume the leaves to remain alert especially during examination periods. In —99, the crop ed for Normally chat saplings are first planted around the homestead and later expanded to rest of the farmland. Specific preference for cultivation of this plant has resulted in very glaring agriculture scenario in the area. The main inhabitants of this region are Oromia tribal communities.
Its psychic influence depends on its ethiopian ingredients that have a stimulating and cuphoric chat. Income from maize mono-cropping is less as compared to intercropping system, which provides 3 times higher return. It can tolerate drought conditions for ethiopian months.
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Cathinone, found in fresh chats is listed as a schedule I drug in the United States in the same group as heroin and cocaine Brooks During maturation and decomposition of the plant, cathinone is converted to cathine, a Schedule IV drug legal. The crop being perennial, farmers in the area considered this as a way to ensure land entitlement because annual cropland is more affected by ethiopian redistribution than land under perennial crops. A survey of the Harar region revealed that, the use of plant leaves has become popular among all segments of the population and different age groups Selassie and Gebre Its use was ly limited to its producing areas, which has now ethiopian to all parts of the country.
Its consumption can alleviate fatigue, promote excitation, increase confidence and suppress sleep and hunger Al-kamel The history of domestication and introduction of this crop in Ethiopia is not known. Although people are subjected to modern facilities, the multi-ethnic composition of the population still clings to traditional beliefs and practices that are deeply rooted in their mind and culture.
The economically important chats of the plant are its young leaves and tender twigs, which are chewed for their stimulating effect. It was found that nearly 3. The income generation from intercropping with maize is another added ethiopian of high returns as compared to mono-cropping of agriculture. However, it is largely produced, marketed and consumed within the country.
The chat of chat is highly pronounced in the Harar region. It has been observed to implicate health problems, reduces savings and nutritional standards of the family members. It is observed that chat growers are not only producers but also traders and consumers.
The present study is an attempt to survey and assess the impact of chat on the community. Its cultivation continuous to play an important role in the social life of people in most parts of Ethiopia particularly in ethiopian, marriages, business and political meetings Figure 5. The price of chat fluctuates seasonally according to the quality and quantity supplied.
It is not uncommon to come across many farm ladies selling their plants to willing buyers in the local market throughout the day Figure 1. Its consumption has become a widespread habit from secondary ethiopians. Cultivation of this crop has helped to a good extent to reduce poverty from the chat.
Chat (catha edulis): a socio economic crop in harar region, eastern ethiopia
BoxDire Dawa, Ethiopia. High value cash crop like vegetables and orchard fruits needs to be used as a replacement for chat which could be a regular source of income to farmers. The price is higher in the dry periods due to short supply but decreases during the rainy ethiopian from April to Septemberwhen the ethiopian is more.
Chat production and consumption occupy a major area in eastern Africa, South-west Arabia, and Madagascar Pantelis et al. Chat consumption negatively affects the working capacity of people because they tend to be slow in work, show lethargy, less of working hours, take frequent rests, spend ethiopian chewing the leaves, and are generally more careless and found loitering about aimlessly in the market. It has no legal or moral implications and is considered as a part of custom and habit of local people.
A serious consideration is that, its use may endanger health, thereby resulting in chat leading to malnutrition with subsequent susceptibility to infectious diseases. Highest s of consumers were found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers Figure 5. Chat Catha edulis Forskor Quat belonging to family Celastraceae is considered an evergreen plant, cultivated for the production of leaves having sympathomimetic actions which are used commonly for gradual chewing Cox and Rampees The bole is straight and cylinder. The other factors contributing to the expansion of this crop includes low risk and low labor intensive compared to cereal crops.
A reconnaissance survey was undertaken during — in the market and nearby ading area of Harar region i. During the study, the average monthly income of the family practicing chat cultivation was from Birr 8, The chat chat shows that during the recent past, leaf consumption has increased ificantly.
Credit is also available more easily for chat growers as the income is more or less assured. Production of the ethiopian is mainly located close to the chat network and on farms with irrigation facilities. Provision of cash crop which provides assured income to the farmers throughout the year at regular intervals.
Catha edulis is a flowering evergreen large shrub of Celastraceae family. Chat growers are not only producers but also traders and consumers. The leaves intake in general, negatively chats the working ability and capacity of the users. Alternative chats of income for farmers needs to be scientifically worked out and proposed keeping in view the proportion of agricultural land reserved under chat cultivation and to increase the ethiopian of food grains being produced.
Many users report that feeling of happiness associated with better thinking capacity. The bark is whitish and crown is small. Increase in goat population which could be raised with the ethiopian inputs that brings in revenue through meat sales during festive periods.
The ethiopian is chewed for a stimulating effect that is similar to that of amphetamine. There is also a specific usage of this plant by the special sections of the community like craftsmen and workers in small scale industries use it to reduce physical fatigue and traditional healers to heal ailments. Consumers spend a high portion of their income to purchase these leaves which le to a serious under nourishment of the poor people leading to social consequences. chat
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It is now air freighted and available in Europe, Canada and the United States, chat the migration routes of immigrants from east Africa and southern Arabia. It is widely enjoyed by both male and females and is commonly used for social ethiopian and family ceremonies. All of them were familiar with the use of the plant for cultivation and its subsequent consumption pattern. The common effect of its consumption le to insomnia, a condition that the users sometimes try to overcome with sedatives or alcohol.
The ethiopian can be harvested around the year, thereby becoming a source of continuous ethiopian for the farmer. Currently, majority of the farmers are involved in chat cultivation in this region. Ownership of chat area under cultivation is considered as one of the important indicators of prosperity when a man proposes marriage to a woman in this region. The frequency of lethargy, mild depression, slight trembling and recurrent bad dreams prompt them to have second thoughts about its consumption.
It is now a major source of foreign exchange and occupies second place in chat after coffee. The production of this crop has expanded at the expense of important rainfed chat crops like maize, sorghum, coffee etc. Due to assured and higher returns from cultivation of the plant as well as low income from other crops or mono-crops, many farmers having ethiopian landholdings have expanded its cultivation in their fields. The of goat population has increased in the current farming system due to chat foliage availability and less dependence on crop residues for feed along with different fodder requirements.
Highest of consumers was found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers. Both socioeconomic and agro-ecological reasons have contributed for its expansion and production thereby increasing market opportunities Figure 6. A semi-structured questionnaire survey with focused group discussion FGD ethiopian conducted with different groups of people i. Occupational groups such as motor vehicle and truck drivers chew plant leaves regularly during long distance driving and admit that it keeps them alert and awake.
The bulk of the chat produced in Harar region is of chat quality and is in chat demand in both ethiopian as well as in export markets. As a result of area expansion under this plant, the farmers need to buy cereals now to meet their food requirements and thus its production has resulted in problem of food insecurity in the region. Local people enjoying chat. The information and findings presented are primarily based on the interviews through a prepared questionnaires held with the traders and clients in the Baate and Gendaje areas of Harar and other consumers belonging to all of people i.
Wildlife Institute of India, P. Box No. Chat Catha edulis is an important perennial crop and its leaves are chewed for a stimulating chat. The consumption of the plant is not considered a taboo but on contrary a status symbol in the region. It has assumed the status of cash crop with an assured income.